Frontline employee is able to satisfy a customer even after a service failure happens Yavas et al. Since there are many kinds of marketing tools, the following literature review is divided into advertisement, promotion and relationship marketing.
The continuing of economy recession drives banks to find new method to expand their business. Thus, as one of the bank, they need to follow the pace of their competitor in order to position themselves in the market. Here there is a research about credit card web advertisement.
Banks spend billions of dollars in a year just for the marketing but do it worth the price? The author also found out that the increase in branch number does not show significant gain in any aspects as above. Thus, promotion spending exhibits the increase in returns to scale. Although relationship marketing is previous practice in industrial context, it had been adapted by service industry in order to create its competitive advantage. Relationship marketing is a long term commitment in maintaining existing customers and establishing relationship with customers.
The competitive environment had force the bank to gives more concern about relationship marketing in order to compete with other banks. Research Abratt and Russell, proves that respondents with relationship with their banks favour the individualised service and their banks understand what they want more dissertation service in malaysia 2014 respondents without relationships.
Through this statement, the author predicts there are room for improvements to improve client service by relationship marketing. Thai bank also facing increasingly competition among financial institutions and other types of small business.
Boonajsevee conducted an experiment on Thai banks about how to create and maintain long term customer relationship. It is almost the same as what had been mention in the previous paragraph. The author believes that Thai banks are changing from the purpose of transactional to customer retention.
As mentioned, relationship marketing should concentrate on repeat purchase with cross-selling or up-selling. This dissertation service in malaysia 90an ensure the long term relationship with the customer.
Moreover, this study also covered study about the factor that affecting relationship marketing. According to the study, trust family tree essay customer satisfaction can affects the building of relationship marketing with the banks.
Customers who have strong relationship with bank will tend to be more loyal to the bank and less chances for switching to other banks. Income is the main factors for determines the consumption spending of a family. In general term, students dissertation service in malaysia 370 poor families low income are more likely to take on study loan to finance their tertiary education.
Students from poor families would take on study loan to solve short-term financial problem regardless the parameter of loan schemes Birch and Miller, In this research paper, the author is going to conduct research only on mortgage loan, not study loan.
On the other hand, different sources of income affects the mortgage loan takes on by the specific families. Cai and Zeng conducted a research based on the willingness of a farmer to small forest tenure mortgage loans in Yibin of Sichuan. They found out that willingness for mortgage loan between income from deforestation, non-agricultural activities and breeding activities are difference.
Forestry income families have the higher tendency to take on mortgage loan due to the high investment during reforestation; Non-agricultural income families would likely take on mortgage loan too since they need funds in other aspects; and breeding income families have low chances on taking on mortgage loan since they are able to afford themselves.
Rashid et al. This research finding showed that there are strong relationship between income level and total expenditure of the households. In another means, when income level increases, the total expenditure of households will increase proportionately. The authors also analyse the effect of income level on housing loan. Research showed that most of the respondents felt the expensive housing loan has increased the total expenditure of the households, especially in urban area. Devlin analyse the choice criteria of consumer and the differences of choice criteria in terms of demographic factors such as gender, class, household income, educational level ethnicity and financial maturity.
Through the process of questionnaire and face-to-face interview, the author concludes that the high segment higher household income, higher education level and higher class are more likely to choose a financial institution same as the previous mortgage lender. The findings in previous paragraph are coherent to a previous research paper by Boyd et al. What has been called one of "two versions" of "Islamic economy" existed during the first ten years of the Islamic Republic of Iran during the life of Supreme Leader and revolution founder Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.
This was an "Islamist socialistand state-run": It was "little by little supplanted" by a more liberal economic policy. In the s and s, as the Islamic revolution failed to reach the per capita income level achieved by the regime it overthrew, and Communist states and socialist parties in the non-Muslim world turned away from socialismMuslim interest shifted away from government ownership and regulation.
In Iran, " eqtesad-e Eslami meaning both Islamic economics and economy It disappeared from Iranian political discourse" about The term lived on in the Muslim world, shifting form to the less ambitious goal of interest-free banking.
Some Muslim bankers and religious leaders suggested ways to integrate Islamic law on usage of money with modern concepts of ethical investing. In banking this was done through the use of sales transactions focusing on the fixed rate return modes to support investing without interest-bearing debt.
Many modern writers have strongly criticized this approach as a means of covering conventional banking with an Islamic facade.
King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah hosted the first international conference on Islamic economics in Along with these achievements, some Islamic economists have complained of problems in the academic discipline: a shift in interest away from Islamic Economics to Islamic Finance since the s, a shortage of university courses, reading materials that are "either scant or of poor quality",  lack of intellectual freedom,  "narrow focus" on interest-free banking and zakat without data-based research to substantiate claim made for them-that interest causes economic problems or that zakat solves them.
A number of economists have lamented that while Islamic Finance was originally a " subset " of Islamic Economics, economics and research in pure Islamic economics has been "shifted to the back burner". According to economist Rasem Kayed, while a number of universities and institutes of higher learning now offer essay on peer pressure and driving on Islamic economics and finance "most dissertation service in malaysia 90an the courses offered by these institutions pertain to Islamic finance rather than Islamic economics.
Most of Islamic economics consists of theology on economic matters. Siddiqi notes Islamic economics has been teaching "conventional economics from an Islamic perspective", rather than Islamic economics. Despite its start inas ofIslamic economics was called still in its infancy,   its "curricula frames, course structures, reading materials, and research", "mostly" anchored in the "mainstream tradition",   "lacking sufficiency, depth, coordination and direction," with teaching faculties in many cases Despite the holding of a workshop in November to arrange the writing of such a textbook, the participation of "a number of eminent Muslim economists", at the International Institute of Islamic Thought in London and the appointment of "a noted Muslim economist" to coordinate the production of the textbook, as of "no standard textbook of Islamic economics was available.
Islamic economic institutes are not known for their intellectual freedom, and according to Muhammad Akram Khan are unlikely to allow criticism of the ideas or policies of their founding leaders or governments. The Centre for Research in Islamic Economics, an organ of the Jeddah University in Saudi Arabia, for example, "cannot allow publication of any work that goes against the orthodox thinking of the influential" Saudi religious leadership.
Use of Islamic terminology not only for distinctive Islamic concepts such as riba, zakat, mudaraba but also for concepts that do not have specific Islamic connotation -- adl for justice, hukuma for government-locking out non-Muslim and even not Arabic speaking readers from the content of Islamic economics and even "giving legitimacy" to "pendantry" in the field.
According to authors F. Nomani and A. Rahnema, the Qur'an states that God is the sole owner of dissertation service in malaysia matter in the heavens and the earth,  but man is God's viceregent on earth and holds God's possessions in trust amanat. Islamic jurists divide properties into public, state, private categories. Some Muslims believe that the Shariah provides "specific laws and standards regarding the use and allocation of resources including land, water, animals, minerals, and manpower.
According to M.
Khan, "Islam introduced the distinction between private property and public property and made the rulers accountable to the people". Rahnema state that public property in Islam refers to natural resources forestspastures report writing training video, uncultivated land, waterminesoceanic resources etc.
Such resources are considered the common property of the community. Such property is placed under the guardianship and control of the Islamic state, and can be used by any citizen, as long as that use does not undermine the rights of other citizens, according to Nomani and Rahnema. The owner of previously public property that is privatized pays zakat and, according to Shi'ite scholars, khums as well.
In general, the privatization and nationalization of public property is subject to debate amongst Islamic scholars. According to an analysis by Walid El-Malik inonly the Maliki school took the position that all kinds of natural resources are state-owned; the Hanafi school took the opposite view and held that mineral ownership followed surface ownership, while the other two schools, Shafi'i and Hanbali, drew a distinction between "hidden" and "unhidden" minerals.
State property includes certain natural resources, as well as other property that can't immediately be privatized. Islamic state property can be movable, or immovable, and can be acquired through conquest or peaceful means. Unclaimed, unoccupied and heir-less properties, including uncultivated land mawatcan be considered state property. During the life of Muhammad, one fifth of military equipment captured from the enemy in the battlefield was considered state property.
During his reign, Umar on dissertation service in malaysia 90an recommendation of Ali considered conquered land to be state rather than private property as was usual practice. The purported reason for this was that privatizing this property would concentrate resources in the hands of a few, and prevent it from being used for the general good.
The property remained under the occupation of the cultivators, but taxes were collected on it for the state treasury. Muhammad said "Old and fallow lands are for God and His Messenger i. Jurists draw from this the conclusion that, ultimately, private ownership takes over state property.
There is consensus amongst Islamic jurists and social scientists that Islam recognizes and upholds the individual's right to private ownership. The Qur'an extensively discusses taxation, inheritanceprohibition against stealing, legality of ownership, recommendation to give charity and other topics related to private property.
Islam also guarantees the protection of private property by imposing stringent punishments on thieves. Muhammad said that he who dies defending his property was like a martyr. Islamic economists classify the acquisition of private property into involuntary, contractual and non-contractual categories. Involuntary means are inheritances, bequests, and gifts. Non-contractual acquisition involves the collection and exploitation of natural resources that have not previously been claimed as private property.
Contractual acquisition includes activities such as trading, buying, renting, hiring labor etc. A tradition attributed to Muhammad, with which both Sunni and Shi'a jurists agree, in cases where the right to private ownership causes harm to others, then Islam favors curtailing the right in those cases. Maliki and Hanbali jurists argue that if private ownership endangers public interest, then dissertation service in malaysia state can limit the amount an individual is allowed to own.
This view, however, is debated by others. When Muhammad migrated to Madinah many of the Muslims owned agricultural land. Muhammad confirmed this ownership and allocated land to individuals. The land allotted would be used for housing, farming or gardening.
For example, Bilal b. Harith was given land with mineral deposits at 'Aqiq Valley  Hassan b. Strategic management essay was afforded the garden of Bayruha  and Zubayr received oasis land at Khaybar and Banu Nadir. Naz, regulation of markets is among the main functions of hisbah  the "semi-judicial institution" operational from the "earliest days of Islam".
Khan states, institution of Hisbah as established to "supervise markets, to provide municipal services, and to settle petty disputes". According to Nomani and Rahnema, Islam accepts markets as the basic coordinating mechanism of the economic system. Islamic teaching holds that the market, given perfect competition, allows consumers to obtain desired goods and producers to sell their goods at a mutually acceptable price.
Three necessary conditions for an operational dissertation service in malaysia airlines are said by Nomani and Rahnema to be upheld in Islamic primary sources: . The financial assistance rate up pictures are reportedly impossible.
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